The Greater Kilimanjaro Landscape

Published November 2018

Members of the Maasai communities are employed as community scouts and are gathered around.

Members of the Maasai communities are employed as community scouts. Credit: African Wildlife Foundation

The Greater Kilimanjaro area – a 25,623 km2 transboundary landscape that spans the Kenya–Tanzania border – is a critical region for elephant, lion and other species. Effective collaboration between local communities, NGOs and national wildlife authorities has proven successful in anti-poaching efforts, and more broadly in protecting the region’s wildlife.

Anti-poaching activities are seen as one element in a programme which is also focussed on developing community-based tourism, community capacity building, grazing management, livestock improvement and compensation schemes for loss from wild animal predators. All of contributed to a decrease in poaching. 


The logos of African Wildlife Foundation, Big Life Foundation, Kenya Wildlife Service, Tanzania Wildlife Division and Tanzania National Parks who are partners in the Greater Kilimanjaro Landscape initiative.

The poaching and wildlife trade problem

Species affected African Elephant Loxodonta africana

The strategy

Strengthening disincentives for illegal behaviour

Further detail

Members of local communities are wildlife scouts and guards.

Increasing incentives for wildlife stewardship

Trophy hunting
Further detail

Conservation jobs are highly popular. Working as a guide or in a tourism facility all confer prestige, as well as offering training and an income.

Revenue is generated from hunting (in Tanzania).

Increasing livelihoods that are not related to wildlife

Provision of community-level benefits
Further detail

Social benefits such as water services, schools, bursaries and medical facilities.

Organisers, donors and partners

For further information contact People Not Poaching coordinator (